Infectious processes of joints and bone tissue

WHAT IS OSTEOMYELITIS?

Osteomyelitis is a purulent-necrotic process, an infectious inflammation of all the constituent parts of bone tissue. This disease affects the bone marrow, which increases and swells. A hard shell presses on the tissue, causing loss of blood flow in the damaged area. This process causes destruction in the body. When pus penetrates beyond the bone, an abscess can develop which is caused by pyogenic bacteria.

FORMS OF DISEASE

  • internal infection;
  • toxic osteomyelitis;
  • Posttraumatic osteomyelitis;
  • Postoperative;

Types of Osteomyelitis

  • Acute osteomyelitis

The jawbones are affected, resulting in a purulent and necrotic process, when the tissues begin to die. The defeat of the jaw bones can arise due to weakened immunity, dental diseases, laryngological diseases, improper dental treatment, impaired metabolism, infection.
Purulent foci, begin to appear because of small hemorrhage, which provoke the death of individual sections of tissues. In the course of the disease, acute pain occurs, which is given to the temples, forehead and nasal sinuses. The body reacts to the damage with high fever, which is accompanied by chills and poor overall well-being of the person.

  • Chronic osteomyelitis

Most often, the chronic appearance of osteomyelitis occurs, in consequence of a neglected acute disease. Unwillingness to consult a doctor or incompetence of the doctors themselves, when you can buy amoxil without a prescription. Chronic appearance occurs 2-4 months after the acute stage of the disease. If you do not start treatment, then on the organ that is affected, fistulas will be formed, which will often become aggravated and fade.

  • Odontogenic osteomyelitis

infectious purulent-necrotic process in the jaw bone that occurs as a consequence of a general decrease in human immunity, fatigue, acute respiratory diseases, due to hypothermia, or incorrect actions in eliminating the acute form.

Symptoms:

  • weakness;
  • insomnia;
  • fistulas;
  • body temperature around 37 degrees;
  • allocation of the necrotic parts through fistulous orifices and pus.

TYPES AND SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE

Internal infection:

  • high body temperature;
  • muscle pain;
  • discomfort in the joints;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • severe pain in the area of ​​the affected bone;
  • fistulas and purulent discharge.

Toxic osteomyelitis:

  • heartache;
  • low blood pressure;
  • cramps and loss of consciousness are possible;
  • eyes deepened;
  • pallor of the skin of the face;
  • yellow face skin;
  • blue lips.

Post-traumatic osteomyelitis:

  • fever;
  • Purulent discharge is excreted through the fistulas;
  • severe pain in the area of ​​trauma, chronic;

REASONS OF DISEASE

  • Staphylococcus;

  • Some fungi that enter the bone tissue and provoke the onset of the disease;
  • Rickettsia.

Basically, the causes of bone and joint disease are Staphylococcus aureus, as well as some E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and hemolytic streptococcus.

FACTORS AND STARTING MECHANISMS OF OSTEOMYELITIS

Factors:

  • weak immunity;
  • allergies;
  • the infection is hidden;
  • latent infections;
  • exhaustion of the body;
  • lack of nutrients, which is caused by prolonged starvation;
  • poor ecological conditions;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • irrational and use of antibacterial agents.

Mechanisms:

  • acute respiratory viral infections;
  • injury;
  • burns and frostbite;
  • stress and prolonged nervous exhaustion;
  • excessive physical activity.

What doctor will help diagnose?

Assistance in the treatment of osteomyelitis is handled by an orthopedist-traumatologist specialist for adults.
The doctor is a pediatrician or a surgeon for young children.

HOW DOES THE OSTEOMIELITIE DIAGNOSE?

At first….

The doctor orthopedist-traumatologist spends inspection and fingers with a painful site of a body. The doctor fixes the skin condition (redness, temperature, appearance of the damaged area, swelling). A cautious doctor is tapping the foci of infection.

Then…

 

Laboratory and clinical studies are prescribed:

A general analysis of urine and blood to determine the presence of bacterial infection in the body and the presence of inflammation.

After that…

A biochemical blood test is prescribed, which shows the inflammatory process and renal and hepatic insufficiency. The parameters of protein, glucose, bilirubin in the blood are checked.

If necessary …

An ultrasound is assigned to assess the size and shape of the muscular lesion.

If necessary, then …

Infrared scanning is performed for the presence of latent forms of osteomyelitis. And also roentgenography, which determines the location of necrotic processes and the volume of the infectious focus. The main thing that X-rays can show is the high accuracy of the time of the disease in the early stages of a doctor’s visit.

And finally ….

Computer tomography, which in the modern world, is the most informative way of diagnosing any disturbance in the body. Computed tomography allows you to obtain voluminous images and data on the location and intensity of the disease.

MEDICATIVE (CONSERVATIVE) TREATMENT OF OSTEOMYELITIS

If you seek treatment in time, you can do without surgery. This implies a comprehensive set of physiotherapy procedures, as well as buy amoxyl online.

It should be understood that the neglected form of osteomyelitis does not bring good results. Insufficient treatment with antibacterial drugs provokes mutations of microbes that can become resistant to medications, such as buy amoxyl.
In addition to antibacterial drugs, intraosseous infusion of physiological solution (isotonic sodium chloride solution with proteolytic enzymes and antibiotics) is performed, due to which a barrier is created that prevents the spread of pathogens. Also, washing allows you to reduce pressure in the bone tissue and disinfects pus.
The drug itself is injected into the bone cavity and should be applied 1-2 months. However, the course of treatment, depending on the severity of the disease, can last up to 4 months.

WHAT TO DO IN THE PERIOD OF RECEPTION OF ANTIBIOTICS?

  • limit mobility, with the help of special device;
  • gypsum lingeta, the tire of Belera (in older children);
  • adhesive plaque traction along the Shed, bandages of Dezo (in infants);
  • ultraviolet effect on the blood;
  • intravenous infusion of solutions;
  • purification of the blood and lymphatic system from toxins;

SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OSTEOMYELITIS

In what case is it possible to avoid surgical intervention?

  • purulent processes;
  • formed sequestration;
  • fistulas;
  • recurrence of the disease.

With chronic osteomyelitis, the suppurative focus in the bone can be eliminated only through surgical intervention. However, surgical intervention is not possible with concomitant diseases in the decompensated stage.

“regardless of the size of the purulent focus must be removed”

Preparation before the operation includes the introduction of drugs that support the immune system, detoxification and testing of metabolism, and, if necessary, the use of corrective drugs.
Operative intervention is carried out under general anesthesia. Each operation includes the stages of the conduct, which depend on the need.

How is the operation performed?

At first…

The operating field is treated with antiseptics, tools are checked.
The effect of anesthesia is checked and only the first incision is made.

Then…

The surgeon gets to the source of the infection, most often inside the bone. With the help of special tools opens the bone area, if necessary, pus is eliminated.

After that….

Drilling of small holes is also made with the help of electric surgical hole is connected by a cut. Thus, the focus of the disease opens.

Next step…

The canal is washed with antiseptics, which is removed by a drainage tube.

And in conclusion …

There is a stitching of wounds by a layer method. With the help of the installed drainage, the cavity is washed with antibacterial solutions, the wound is re-opened and the drainage is replaced by a section of striated tissue with an attached vessel for feeding (surgical plastic). This is necessary to prevent recurrent osteomyelitis. During the healing drainage is removed.

PROPHYLAXIS OF OSTEOMYLITIS

The complex of physical exercises can be used only after withdrawal from the acute period of the disease, after 20 days, after the pain syndrome has been removed. With the help of physiotherapy exercises, the recovery is stimulated by the activity of muscle tissue, and the affected area receives nutrients and vitamins. To do this, twice for 10-15 minutes, a warm-up is done to prevent the formation of pressure sores and stimulate blood flow in the tissues. Over time, exercise time increases. It will be useful to use electrophoresis and ultra-high-frequency therapy.

Diet for osteomyelitis

in osteomyelitis includes frequent meals (5-6 times a day) in small portions. Requires the presence of meat products, dairy products, fresh vegetables, fruits and eggs. It is necessary to consume a lot of liquid (2-2.5 liters per day). It is advisable to use iron-containing foods, calcium and protein. This content is in the liver, beef, apples of green varieties, beans and others.

 

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